Vitamin E: An Essential Nutrient for Bone Health and More

Updated: October 5, 2023

Vitamin e

Vitamin E is one of the unsung heroes in bone health. 


Because vitamin E displays unique fat-soluble antioxidant activity, making it indispensable for protecting your cells and mitigating oxidative stress. Simply put, the far-reaching benefits of this nutrient impact every system in your body.

Vitamin E For Bone Health

Vitamin D is famously known for its bone-health benefits, but did you know that vitamin E also plays a crucial role in keeping your bones healthy and strong? 

In a 2018 study, postmenopausal women receiving vitamin E at either 300 mg/day or 600 mg/day saw significant improvements in their bone remodeling in just 12 weeks. Both doses led to decreased bone resorption (bone breakdown) and improved bone building, with a 100% increase in the BALP/NTX ratio – an important marker for bone remodeling [1]. 

How did vitamin E make such a profound impact on these women’s bone health? This is where the powerful antioxidant capacity of vitamin E comes in.

For some background, if you’re unaware, oxidative stress is one of the harmful processes that impact bone loss due to an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although a certain amount of ROS and oxidative stress is normal, when this process becomes imbalanced, it can create shifts in your bone remodeling pathways that set the stage for bone loss. 

Specifically, high levels of ROS promote the synthesis of osteoclast cells, which are the cells responsible for breaking down your bone. At the same time, ROS promotes the destruction of osteoblast cells, the cells responsible for bone building. As you might imagine, this double whammy means that with high levels of oxidative stress, bone loss goes into overdrive [2]. 

That is, unless you have a potent antioxidant to come in and set things straight. Enter vitamin E.

As an antioxidant, vitamin E not only directly protects your cells from ROS but also impacts other cellular pathways that affect bone turnover. 

Specifically, due to its antioxidant activity, vitamin E is able to inhibit two molecules; macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL. These two molecules are responsible for increasing bone turnover, and decreasing bone rebuilding. Therefore, by inhibiting their activity, vitamin E reduces the bone-destructive impact of oxidative stress [3]. 

In the study, along with improved bone remodeling, the women also showed reduced levels of the RANKL/OPG ratio – indicating that vitamin E was doing its job and shutting down that bone-destructive pathway.

Animal studies have also shown that vitamin E can positively impact bone health by [4][5][6]:

  • Decreasing bone turnover rate
  • Increasing bone formation (even at a genetic level)
  • Maintaining bone strength 
  • Restoring calcium levels
  • Preventing the development of osteoporosis

Other Vitamin E Benefits

While vitamin E is a critical nutrient for bone health, that’s certainly not where the benefits of this vitamin end. Let’s explore some of the other ways that vitamin E supports overall health.


As mentioned, vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant. And not just any type of antioxidant – but a fat-soluble one. What does that mean?

As a fat-soluble antioxidant, vitamin E works on the outer layer of your cells (cellular membrane) to protect the inner workings against oxidative threats. In this way, you can think of it as one of your first lines of cellular defense.

While some levels of oxidative stress are normal for your body, when this process gets out of control, it can cause damage to every single system. Some of the harmful effects of excessive oxidative stress include [7][8]: 

  • Neurological damage 
  • Accelerated aging
  • Increased inflammation 
  • Destruction of cellular structures such as DNA, membrane proteins, and more
  • Respiratory damage
  • Cardiovascular damage 
  • And much more


Inflammation and oxidation often go hand-in-hand, working together to respond to immune threats – but often creating more harm than good (when left unchecked). 

Vitamin E not only helps to mitigate oxidative stress in your body, but studies show that it also has a profound impact on your inflammatory response. In fact, numerous studies show that vitamin E supplementation can have a significant effect on a marker known as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), which is one of the most notable markers for inflammation [9][10][11].

Heart Health

vitamin e leads to goos heart health

Inflammation and oxidative stress play leading roles in heart disease, which is why vitamin E and other antioxidant compounds can be so impactful in protecting your heart for the long term. 

That said, in addition to the general anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of vitamin E, this nutrient may also provide more heart-health-specific benefits. 

For example, research shows that vitamin E may directly impact blood lipid levels, which have a profound effect on atherosclerotic plaque formation. 

In one study, four weeks of vitamin E supplementation resulted in a 15% reduction in total cholesterol, 18% in LDL cholesterol, and 14% in triglycerides. In another study, 60 days of vitamin E supplementation decreased lipid levels by 23%, total cholesterol by 30%, and LDL-cholesterol by 42% [12][13].

Studies also show that vitamin E may positively affect cell adhesion, which is an initiating step in the formation of plaque in your arteries [14][15].

Skin Health

As you’ve learned, vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant, which means that it protects the outer layer of your cells. Well, if you zoom out a bit and think of your skin (which is made up of trillions of cells), it becomes pretty obvious how vitamin E can promote healthier skin.

By acting as an antioxidant, vitamin E can counter the oxidative damage your skin encounters due to environmental factors, including UV rays from the sun. In fact, tocotrienols (a type of vitamin E) have a natural SPF of 5.5, which means they actively reduce the amount of radiation that your skin picks up from sunlight [16].

Animal studies show that vitamin E supplementation not only helps protect against inflammatory injury but also helps the skin regenerate [17].

And, of course, beyond the aesthetic appeal of healthier-looking skin, vitamin E also helps to ensure that your skin is doing its functional job – which is to protect you from injury or infection [18].

Eye Health

Vitamin E may play a critical role in eye health by mitigating the formation of cataracts that come with age. Cataracts are an incredibly common eye condition, impacting over half of the American public aged 80 or older [19]. 

As you age, the proteins in your eye start to break down and clump together, which results in a cloudy area (known as a cataract) on your lens. 

Vitamin E, which is naturally present in the lens of your eye, may help combat the formation of cataracts by inhibiting the oxidative stress that leads to clumping in the first place [20].

What Are Good Food Sources of Vitamin E?

You can find vitamin E in various foods, with some of the most common and abundant sources including [21]:

  • Sunflower seeds
  • Almonds 
  • Avocados
  • Hazelnuts
  • Peanut butter
  • Spinach
  • Broccoli 

While you can get a fair amount of vitamin E through your diet, research shows that in most cases, Americans aren’t reaching the RDA through food alone. For this reason, the best way to ensure that your body is receiving the vitamin E it needs for optimal health is by taking a high-quality supplement [21].

vitamin e in nuts

How To Ensure You’re Getting The Right Forms Of Vitamin E

When it comes to vitamin E, it’s not just about getting enough of this nutrient, but rather getting enough of the right forms of this nutrient. Vitamin E actually comes in eight different isoforms, divided into two categories; tocopherols and tocotrienols. 

Alpha-tocopherol is the most common form you’ll find in supplements and is known for its ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. On the other hand, gamma-tocopherol is known for its ability to neutralize reactive nitrogen species. 

Although tocopherols are more popular than tocotrienols in the supplement world, emerging research shows that tocotrienols are actually much more effective as antioxidants. How much more effective? One animal study showed that tocotrienols possessed 50 times higher antioxidant activity than tocopherols – which is a pretty significant difference when it comes to protecting your cell membranes [22][23][24]. 

Furthermore, alpha-tocopherol on its own may be detrimental to bone health as this form of vitamin E needs to be in balance with the other isoforms (for example, when alpha-tocopherol outweighs gamma, it could lead to increased levels of inflammation) [25].

This delicate balancing act is precisely why choosing the right vitamin E supplement is so crucial. Carefully formulated vitamin E supplements will include a balance of mixed tocopherols and tocotrienols to offer you optimal support.


Vitamin E is a unique and powerful nutrient that every single cell in your body relies on for protection against oxidative stress. Like most things in life, however, not all vitamin E is created equally. In nature, we find a balance of this nutrient in eight different isoforms. In most supplements, however, we only find one or two forms – primarily tocopherols. 

If you’re looking for a way to include a more balanced ratio of this fat-soluble vitamin in your diet, we’ve got you covered with our D3 Complete supplement which includes a balance of mixed tocopherols, along with tocotrienols to cover all of your bases.

For more news and updates on bone health and healthy aging, sign up for the AlgaeCal Newsletter.


Can I take vitamin D and E together?

Yes, taking vitamin E and vitamin D together, particularly with a meal that includes fat, is a helpful way to ensure you’re receiving adequate levels of these fat-soluble nutrients.

Is it safe to take vitamin E every day?

Yes, it’s safe to take vitamin E every day as long as you’re staying within the upper limit for supplemental vitamin E, which is 1,000 mg/day.

Is vitamin E good for bone health?

Vitamin E is important in regulating the bone remodeling process, ensuring that your bones maintain an equilibrium between bone breakdown and bone renewal.

What are four benefits of vitamin E?

Vitamin E displays antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity and is essential for bone, heart, eye, and skin health.

Article Sources

  1. Shen, C. L., Wang, S., Yang, S., Tomison, M. D., Abbasi, M., Hao, L., ... & Mo, H. (2018). A 12-week evaluation of annatto tocotrienol supplementation for postmenopausal women: Safety, quality of life, body composition, physical activity, and nutrient intake. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 18(1), 1-10.
  2. Wong, S. K., Mohamad, N. V., Ibrahim, N. I., Chin, K. Y., Shuid, A. N., & Ima-Nirwana, S. (2019). The molecular mechanism of vitamin E as a bone-protecting agent: a review on current evidence. International journal of molecular sciences, 20(6), 1453.
  3. Boyce, B. F., & Xing, L. (2008). Functions of RANKL/RANK/OPG in bone modeling and remodeling. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 473(2), 139-146.
  4. Chin, K. Y., Abdul-Majeed, S., Mohamed, N., & Ima-Nirwana, S. (2017). The effects of tocotrienol and lovastatin co-supplementation on bone dynamic histomorphometry and bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in rats with estrogen deficiency. Nutrients, 9(2), 143
  5. Abdul-Majeed, S., Mohamed, N., & Soelaiman, I. N. (2015). The use of delta-tocotrienol and lovastatin for anti-osteoporotic therapy. Life sciences, 125, 42-48.
  6. Fakhrurazi, H. (2002). Palm vitamin eprotects bone against dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis in male rats. The Medical Journal of Malaysia, 57(2), 136-144.
  7. Liguori, I., Russo, G., Curcio, F., Bulli, G., Aran, L., Della-Morte, D., ... & Abete, P. (2018). Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases. Clinical interventions in aging, 757-772.
  8. Pizzino, G., Irrera, N., Cucinotta, M., Pallio, G., Mannino, F., Arcoraci, V., ... & Bitto, A. (2017). Oxidative stress: harms and benefits for human health. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2017.
  9. Qureshi, A. A., Khan, D. A., Mahjabeen, W., Trias, A. M., Silswal, N., & Qureshi, N. (2015). Impact of δ-tocotrienol on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic subjects. J Clin Exp Cardiolog, 6(367), 2.
  10. Pervez, M. A., Khan, D. A., Ijaz, A., & Khan, S. (2018). Effects of delta-tocotrienol supplementation on liver enzymes, inflammation, oxidative stress and hepatic steatosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology, 29(2), 170.
  11. Saboori, S., Shab-Bidar, S., Speakman, J. R., Yousefi Rad, E., & Djafarian, K. (2015). Effect of vitamin E supplementation on serum C-reactive protein level: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. European journal of clinical nutrition, 69(8), 867-873.
  12. Qureshi, A. A., Khan, D. A., Mahjabeen, W., & Qureshi, N. (2015). Dose-dependent modulation of lipid parameters, cytokines and RNA by δ-tocotrienol in hypercholesterolemic subjects restricted to AHA Step-1 diet. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, 6(4), 351-366.
  13. Baliarsingh, S., Beg, Z. H., & Ahmad, J. (2005). The therapeutic impacts of tocotrienols in type 2 diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis, 182(2), 367-374.
  14. Chao, J. T., Gapor, A., & Theriault, A. (2002). Inhibitory Effect of δ-Tocotrienol, a HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitor. on Monocyte-Endothelial Cell Adhesion. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology, 48(5), 332-337.
  15. Theriault, A., Chao, J. T., & Gapor, A. (2002). Tocotrienol is the most effective vitamin E for reducing endothelial expression of adhesion molecules and adhesion to monocytes. Atherosclerosis, 160(1), 21-30.
  16. Yap, W. N., Zaiden, N., Xu, C. H., Chen, A., Ong, S., Teo, V., & Yap, Y. L. (2010). Gamma-and delta-tocotrienols inhibit skin melanin synthesis by suppressing constitutive and UV-induced tyrosinase activation. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res, 23(5), 688-92.
  17. Ghosh, S. P., Kulkarni, S., Hieber, K., Toles, R., Romanyukha, L., Kao, T. C., ... & Kumar, K. S. (2009). Gamma-tocotrienol, a tocol antioxidant as a potent radioprotector. International journal of radiation biology, 85(7), 598-606.
  18. Burclaff, J., & Mills, J. C. (2018). Plasticity of differentiated cells in wound repair and tumorigenesis, part II: skin and intestine. Disease models & mechanisms, 11(9), dmm035071.
  20. Christen, W. G., Glynn, R. J., Gaziano, J. M., Darke, A. K., Crowley, J. J., Goodman, P. J., ... & Klein, E. A. (2015). Age-related cataract in men in the selenium and vitamin e cancer prevention trial eye endpoints study: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA ophthalmology, 133(1), 17-24.
  22. Serbinova, E., Kagan, V., Han, D., & Packer, L. (1991). Free radical recycling and intramembrane mobility in the antioxidant properties of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 10(5), 263-275.
  23. Müller, L., Theile, K., & Böhm, V. (2010). In vitro antioxidant activity of tocopherols and tocotrienols and comparison of vitamin E concentration and lipophilic antioxidant capacity in human plasma. Molecular nutrition & food research, 54(5), 731-742.
  24. Palozza, P., Verdecchia, S., Avanzi, L., Vertuani, S., Serini, S., Iannone, A., & Manfredini, S. (2006). Comparative antioxidant activity of tocotrienols and the novel chromanyl-polyisoprenyl molecule FeAox-6 in isolated membranes and intact cells. Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 287, 21-32.
  25. Chin, K. Y., & Ima-Nirwana, S. (2014). The effects of α-tocopherol on bone: a double-edged sword?. Nutrients, 6(4), 1424-1441.

Article Comments

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  1. Rachel Chang

    October 20, 2023 , 10:02 am

    Where is the D3 + Vitamin E product on your website of products, as mentioned in this newsletter ?
    I live in Canada .

  2. Samantha AlgaeCal

    October 20, 2023 , 10:40 am

    Great question, Rachel! D3 Complete can only be purchased in the USA. Even though there is no Tolerable Upper Intake Level for Vitamin K due to its strong safety profile and wide range of benefits, Health Canada places limitations on the amount of Vitamin K included in health supplements. As such, there are currently no plans to have D3 Complete available in Canada. We apologize for the inconvenience.
    – Sam

  3. Ginger Hannah

    October 20, 2023 , 12:52 pm

    would like to purse
    vitamin E&D Supplement

  4. Kendra AlgaeCal

    October 23, 2023 , 10:11 am

    That’s great, Ginger! You’re welcome to read more about our Vitamin D3 Complete on our website at the products section 🙂 Of course, if you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to reach out to our Bone Health Consultants at 1-800-820-0184 (USA & Canada toll-free)! – Kendra

  5. Shirley sanderson

    October 20, 2023 , 3:12 pm

    I so appreciate your information. Thank you.

  6. Debra J. Damasceno

    October 20, 2023 , 11:16 pm

    Isn’t the D3 and E already in AlgaeCal & Stronium ?

  7. Kendra AlgaeCal

    October 23, 2023 , 10:16 am

    Great question, Debra! You’re correct, there is already Vitamin D3 in our AlgaeCal calcium formulations. However, there is no Vitamin E! As you may already know, a daily dose of AlgaeCal Plus provides 1600 IUs/day of Vitamin D3. While this is optimal for bone health, some people may need additional D depending on their needs. We ultimately suggest discussing the optimal dose of vitamin D with your health care provider as we are not medical professionals! If you have any more questions, feel free to reach out to us at 1-800-820-0184 (USA & Canada toll-free) 🙂
    – Kendra

  8. Suzanne

    October 21, 2023 , 8:45 am

    Vit E supplements should not be taken if you have low platelets. Low like 109-119, below 150.000 blood work. If you bruise easily you better get checked by a Hematologist because it means it’s really too low.

  9. Kendra AlgaeCal

    October 23, 2023 , 10:22 am

    Thank you for sharing this information, Suzanne! We hope everyone will be able to double-check with their healthcare providers prior to adding any new supplements in their routine! 🙂 – Kendra

  10. Mahin

    October 21, 2023 , 9:00 am

    Thank you for this good article, every time to read
    Your articles I learn a new thinks

  11. Chris Morrissey

    October 23, 2023 , 3:07 am

    Thank you for this very interesting article. Are you suggesting we should be taking a vitamin E supplement as well as AlgaeCal Plus and AlgaeCal Strontium. Thank you.

  12. Kendra AlgaeCal

    October 23, 2023 , 10:28 am

    Great question, Chris! The Bone Builder Pack is formulated and intended to increase your bone density. This has been demonstrated in multiple clinical studies and thousands of DEXA bone scans. In saying that, some people may benefit from additional supplementation of the vitamins found in D3 Complete, such as the Vitamin E, especially if these are lacking in their diet!

    Because this is such an individualized need, we’ve provided these vitamins as a separate supplement from AlgaeCal 🙂 I hope this helps!

    – Kendra

  13. Angie Sist

    October 23, 2023 , 5:26 am

    awesome article … thank YOU ♥

  14. Kendra AlgaeCal

    October 23, 2023 , 10:17 am

    We’re so glad to hear you enjoyed the article, Angie! – Kendra

  15. Heather Mary Horner-Glister

    October 23, 2023 , 9:01 pm

    Great information, can you send to Australia?

  16. Yoori AlgaeCal

    October 24, 2023 , 3:07 pm

    Thank you for your interest, Heather! We are sorry that our D3 complete is not available for international shipping at this time, and we appreciate your understanding!

    – Yoori

  17. Mayra Batelli

    October 30, 2023 , 4:53 am

    I take AlgaeCal Plus. I have a very low vitamin E level. How can I take your supplement to increase my vitamin E level and not cause an imbalance in D3?

  18. Silvia Roach

    November 3, 2023 , 9:26 am

    i had open heart surgeru 5 years ago. can I take Vitamin D3 complete supplement?

  19. Mayra Batelli

    December 23, 2023 , 1:29 pm

    This is a great article. My question is: In my last blood test my gamma E was off the range low. It was 0.4. My Alpha was at a normal range of 20. How can I raise my Gamma to a normal range without increasing the Alpha to a too high of a level? Will your vitamin D and E combo be helpful with this issue? I am currently taking AlgaeCal Plus. Will the addition of your new product throw off balance in the AlgaeCal? Eagerly awaiting your answer so I can decide if your new product is right for me. Thank you.

This article features advice from our industry experts to give you the best possible info through cutting-edge research.

Lara Pizzorno
MDiv, MA, LMT - Best-selling author of Healthy Bones Healthy You! and Your Bones; Editor of Longevity Medicine Review, and Senior Medical Editor for Integrative Medicine Advisors.,
Dr. Liz Lipski
PhD, CNS, FACN, IFMP, BCHN, LDN - Professor and Director of Academic Development, Nutrition programs in Clinical Nutrition at Maryland University of Integrative Health.,
Dr. Loren Fishman
MD, B.Phil.,(oxon.) - Medical Director of Manhattan Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and Founder of the Yoga Injury Prevention Website.,
Prof. Didier Hans
PHD, MBA - Head of Research & Development Center of Bone Diseases, Lausanne University Hospital CHUV, Switzerland,