Prunes and Osteoporosis

Updated: November 29, 2022

Reviewed By:
Dr. Liz Lipski – AlgaeCal Scientific Advisory Board Member
PhD, CNS, FACN, IFMP, BCHN, LDN
Professor and Director of Academic Development, Nutrition programs in Clinical Nutrition at Maryland University of Integrative Health.

The term “superfood” gets thrown around a lot, but research shows that prunes may actually deserve this title, particularly when it comes to bone health.

In this article, we’ll explore what the science has to say about prunes and bone health and highlight some prune-specific nutrients that may be responsible for their bone-boosting qualities. 

How Does Osteoporosis Form?

Osteoporosis is a condition that causes your bones to become weak and brittle and, therefore, more prone to breaks and fractures.

Your bones are constantly going through a process of breaking down and reforming. When you’re young, the process of bone formation outpaces the breakdown process. However, once you get into your 30s, you reach your peak bone mass density (BMD), and from there, the process of breakdown slowly starts to outpace the reformation process.

While it is natural for your bone density to slowly decline into adulthood, osteoporosis occurs when other factors accelerate this process to the point that BMD is low enough to produce fractures.

Hormonal changes, nutrient deficiencies, sedentary lifestyles, and several other factors can play a role in the progression of bone mineral loss [1].

With that being said, the integrity of your bones in childhood may also impact your susceptibility to osteoporosis later in life [2].

Can Prunes Reverse Bone Loss?

The good news about bone mineral density is that, in many cases, you can reverse the loss of bone and increase bone strength and integrity. 

Several factors come into play regarding bone regrowth, including physical activity, lifestyle factors, and of course, nutrition. 

Interestingly, prunes (which are simply dried plums) have become a fruit of interest for bone mineral density.

In one study, postmenopausal women with osteoporosis consumed 100 grams of either dried apples or prunes daily for one year. At the end of the one-year trial, the women who had consumed prunes saw significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) than their dried apple counterparts [3].

To follow up on their findings, a second trial was conducted where women with osteoporosis consumed only 50 grams of prunes daily instead of 100 (that’s about 4 or 5 prunes as opposed to 9 or 10). Even with half the original amount of prunes, the investigators reported significant preservation of BMD. This is especially useful information as prunes have a tendency to cause loose bowels, and five prunes per day are generally tolerated much easier than 10. 

According to the lead investigator, Dr. Bahram Arjmandi, the difference in BMD came (at least in part) from prunes’ ability to suppress the rate of bone resorption (bone breakdown) [4].

Other research suggests that prunes’ antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity may help protect or prevent bone loss. Prunes are high in bioactive compounds like phenolics, along with a variety of vitamins and minerals. These nutrients can help combat oxidative stress and reduce inflammation – two pathologies involved in bone loss [5].
In a research review examining cell studies, the authors conclude that prunes may enhance bone formation and inhibit bone breakdown through their actions on signaling pathways that directly influence bone cells (osteoclasts and osteoblasts). Of course, this would be due to the aforementioned bioactive compounds in prunes [6].

Why Are Prunes Good for Bone Health?

While we may not have the exact mechanisms for prunes’ beneficial impact on bone health, what we do know is that there are strong correlations and clinical evidence that consuming dried plums can enhance BMD [17].

Some of the potential ways in which prunes enhance bone density include:

Vitamin K and Calcium Balance

Prunes are naturally rich in the bone-building nutrient vitamin K. In fact; you can get about 21% of your daily needs in just six prunes. 

Vitamin K is a crucial nutrient for calcium homeostasis. It’s responsible for the activation of specific proteins which shuttle calcium into your bones and prevent calcium deposition in your soft tissues [7][8]. 
As a cofactor for the protein osteocalcin, vitamin K helps bone matrix formation by enhancing mineralization and the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals which make up around 60% of bone mass [9].

Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Support

As mentioned previously, inflammation and oxidative stress are two factors that can contribute to bone loss. This is especially true in postmenopausal women, where lower estrogen levels can trigger a rise in oxidative stress and inflammation. 

Prunes are regarded as one of the most antioxidant-rich fruits out there, primarily due to their composition of phenolic compounds, which are a group of phytonutrients that demonstrate positive effects on bone metabolism. 

Phenolic compounds present in prunes include 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-p-coumarolylquinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin) [18]. Specifically, research shows that rutin may inhibit bone loss, as observed in a rat model of osteoporosis [10]. 

Furthermore, the phenolic compounds in prunes may alter the composition of gut bacteria that make up your microbiome. This could be of great significance to bone health as studies suggest that your microbiota play a role in bone metabolism [19].

Furthermore, studies show that prunes may help to reduce inflammation by inhibiting the activity of pro-inflammatory compounds such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL). These compounds are specifically associated with inflammatory pathways that become active in an estrogen-deficient environment [11][12].

Potassium for Calcium Preservation

Potassium is a mineral that plays an important role in balancing the process of bone resorption due to its impact on calcium. Specifically, potassium helps to neutralize your blood when it becomes too acidic. In acidic conditions, your bones start to lose vital minerals, especially calcium.

When potassium is present, it neutralizes the environment so that your bones can hold onto their minerals, making potassium a vital piece of the bone health puzzle [13][14].

Six prunes contain about 420 mg of potassium, which is about 16% of the recommended adequate daily intake [20].

Boron for Strong Bones

Plums are particularly rich in the trace element boron. 

Boron is involved in both calcium and vitamin D metabolism and the growth of bone tissue. Furthermore, research suggests that this nutrient may also be involved in sex hormone activity [15].

Studies suggest that boron may play a role in preserving BMD by stimulating bone growth and metabolism, enhancing bone microarchitecture, and promoting bone strength [4].

Copper and Manganese

Two other minerals that can be found in prunes that play a role in bone health include copper and manganese.

Manganese acts as a cofactor for several enzymes involved in the formation of bones. As a cofactor, manganese catalyzes chemical reactions to assist in the generation of new bone [22].

Meanwhile, balanced copper levels assist with the maintenance of healthy bones by supporting bone mineral density [23].

One ounce of prunes includes 4% of the RDI of each of these nutrients. 

A Range Of Other Nutrients

In addition to the bone-specific nutrients mentioned above, prunes are a rich source of a symphony of other vitamins and minerals that create the ideal environment for bone remodeling. 

Just one ounce of plums includes: [21]

  • Vitamin A: 4% of the RDI
  • Vitamin K: 21% of the RDI
  • Vitamin B2: 3% of the RDI
  • Vitamin B3: 3% of the RDI
  • Vitamin B6: 3% of the RDI
  • Potassium: 6% of the RDI
  • Magnesium: 3% of the RDI
  • Phosphorus: 2% of the RDI

Takeaway

While there’s no single food that can take care of all your bone health needs, prunes might be the closest thing we have to a bone-health superfood. 

From what research currently shows, as few as five prunes a day may be enough to start making significant changes in your bone mineral density [16].

Keep in mind, however, that many of these studies also include calcium supplementation since prunes themselves are not great sources of calcium. 

The takeaway? Adding prunes to your bone-health regimen is an excellent idea as long as you’re also incorporating other nutrients such as calcium and vitamin D in your daily protocol.

To learn more about how to keep your bones happy and healthy, sign up for our newsletter for updates on the latest in bone health.

References

  1. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/osteoporosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351968
  2. Kralick, Alexandra E., and Babette S. Zemel. “Evolutionary perspectives on the developing skeleton and implications for lifelong health.” Frontiers in endocrinology 11 (2020): 99.
  3. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110818093048.htm
  4. Arjmandi, Bahram H., et al. “Bone-protective effects of dried plum in postmenopausal women: Efficacy and possible mechanisms.” Nutrients 9.5 (2017): 496.
  5. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/02/220209112110.htm
  6. Wallace, Taylor C. “Dried plums, prunes and bone health: a comprehensive review.” Nutrients 9.4 (2017): 401.
  7. Theuwissen, Elke, Egbert Smit, and Cees Vermeer. “The role of vitamin K in soft-tissue calcification.” Advances in Nutrition 3.2 (2012): 166-173.
  8. Hauschka, Peter V. “Osteocalcin: the vitamin K-dependent Ca2+-binding protein of bone matrix.” Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis 16.3-4 (1986): 258-272.
  9. Feng, Xu. “Chemical and biochemical basis of cell-bone matrix interaction in health and disease.” Current chemical biology 3.2 (2009): 189-196.
  10. Horcajada‐Molteni, Marie‐Noëlle, et al. “Rutin inhibits ovariectomy‐induced osteopenia in rats.” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 15.11 (2000): 2251-2258.
  11. Damani, Janhavi, et al. “The Effect of 12-Month Prune (Dried Plum) Supplementation on Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Secretion in Postmenopausal Women.” Current Developments in Nutrition 6.Supplement_1 (2022): 975-975.
  12. Damani, Janhavi J., et al. “The role of prunes in modulating inflammatory pathways to improve bone health in postmenopausal women.” Advances in Nutrition (2022).
  13. Kong, S. H., et al. “Dietary potassium intake is beneficial to bone health in a low calcium intake population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)(2008–2011).” Osteoporosis International 28.5 (2017): 1577-1585.
  14. Zwart, Sara R., Alan R. Hargens, and Scott M. Smith. “The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake is a predictor of bone resorption in space flight analogues and in ambulatory subjects.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 80.4 (2004): 1058-1065.
  15. Rondanelli, Mariangela, et al. “Pivotal role of boron supplementation on bone health: A narrative review.” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 62 (2020): 126577.
  16. Hooshmand, S., et al. “The effect of two doses of dried plum on bone density and bone biomarkers in osteopenic postmenopausal women: a randomized, controlled trial.” Osteoporosis International 27.7 (2016): 2271-2279.
  17. Wallace, Taylor C. “Dried plums, prunes and bone health: a comprehensive review.” Nutrients 9.4 (2017): 401.
  18. http://phenol-explorer.eu/contents/food/51
  19. Yan, Qihui, Liping Cai, and Weiying Guo. “New Advances in Improving Bone Health Based on Specific Gut Microbiota.” Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology (2022): 878.
  20. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Potassium-HealthProfessional/
  21. https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/fruits-and-fruit-juices/2032/2 
  22. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Manganese-HealthProfessional/#en6
  23. Qu, Xinhua, et al. “Serum copper levels are associated with bone mineral density and total fracture.” Journal of orthopaedic translation 14 (2018): 34-44.

Article Comments

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  1. Dr EJ LANGSETH

    July 27, 2017 , 11:07 pm

    Giving readers a practical range of fresh foods v. liquids is a nice change to the usual.

  2. Monica

    July 28, 2017 , 8:06 am

    Hi Dr. Langseth,

    Thanks for the feedback! That’s a great suggestion that we’ll keep in mind.

    – Monica @ AlgaeCal

  3. Christine

    December 6, 2019 , 7:02 pm

    I pour hot water over organic prunes. Let cool . They don’t taste so sweet and a little evaporate mile. They are yummy

  4. Megan AlgaeCal

    December 10, 2019 , 11:19 am

    Great tip, Christine!

    Thanks for sharing with us ?

    -Megan @ AlgaeCal

  5. Jinx

    September 19, 2022 , 1:55 pm

    Would the water remove any of the beneficial ingredients in prunes? Is it ok to dispose of the water (and excess suger dissolved in it) or do you get less benefit?

  6. Chelsea Dugas

    September 22, 2022 , 1:09 pm

    This is really a great question, Jinx! It seems there is some speculation that in some fruit, the healthy omega-3 fatty acids are destroyed when soaked, reducing the nutrient capacity. Soaking can also destroy vitamin E and carotenoids, therefore some people prefer not to soak. That said, there are potential advantages to soaking some things, but further research would be required. Hope this helps a bit!

    – Chelsea @ AlgaeCal

  7. Lila

    October 23, 2017 , 10:47 am

    I have read other articles stating much the same and I would like to know that the addition of prunes to my diet will, indeed, improve my bone density. I do have a question, though. Does the author of this article or AlgaeCal have any connection to the prune industry? Often claims such as this are based on studies performed solely by the industry stand to benefit from the public’s belief in it. If not, it is great news, indeed!
    Thank you!

  8. Monica

    October 23, 2017 , 11:26 am

    Hi Lila,

    Great question! AlgaeCal does not have any interests in the plum industry. However, after checking both studies (the initial and follow-up) I have found this:

    2011 study: The U.S. Department of Agriculture funded Arjmandi’s research. The California Dried Plum Board provided the dried plums for the study, as well as some funding to measure markers of oxidative stress.

    2017 Study: This was funded in part by the California Dried Plum Board and the United States Department of Agriculture. The authors declared no conflict of interest.

    Hope that helps!

    – Monica

  9. Lida Koronewskij

    October 27, 2018 , 3:16 pm

    Hello Monica, Thank you for your article. I like prunes but find them so sweet, along with dates, in fact all fruits, except blueberries-my favorite. For someone to curb that sweet tooth it’s almost impossible with such high fructose.
    Lida

  10. Janice Colston

    April 24, 2019 , 5:56 pm

    Is drinking prune juice as effective as eating dried prunes?

  11. Jenna AlgaeCal

    April 29, 2019 , 4:00 pm

    Good question, Janice. Dried prunes have a much higher fiber content than prune juice — and the fibers in prunes help your bones absorb the minerals they need to stay dense! You may still get some benefit from prune juice, but your best bet is eating dried prunes.

    – Jenna @ AlgaeCal

  12. Jayne

    June 1, 2019 , 12:15 pm

    I put 2-3 prunes in my oatmeal for breakfast. The prunes are packaged with with potassium sorbate. Am I getting rid of the preservative by rinsing them?

  13. Blaire AlgaeCal

    November 13, 2019 , 11:34 am

    Hi Jayne,

    Thanks for reaching out!

    While rinsing them might reduce the amount of potassium sorbate on your prunes, there may still be some residue left. If possible, we do recommend finding ones without potassium sorbate or any other preservatives. For prunes that do not contain preservatives, check out this brand. ?

    – Blaire @ AlgaeCal

  14. Karie

    September 17, 2022 , 8:48 am

    Can you give an updated brand name that link has an error

  15. Chelsea Dugas

    September 20, 2022 , 11:37 am

    Thanks for pointing this out, Karie! Another option for organic, preservative-free dried prunes could be this brand. Hope this helps! 🙂

    – Chelsea @ AlgaeCal

  16. Lisa

    October 2, 2022 , 5:08 am

    Hi Blaire. I’m following the thread, however the link above, goes to an error page.
    Thank you.

  17. Brianne Bovenizer

    October 3, 2022 , 9:03 am

    Hi Lisa,

    I am so sorry that this link no longer works! HERE is a new link 🙂

    – Brianne @ AlgaeCal

  18. Maria

    November 13, 2019 , 7:59 am

    Hi
    Are fresh prune good too?

  19. Blaire AlgaeCal

    November 13, 2019 , 11:37 am

    Hi Maria,

    Plums are definitely healthy as well; however, we do recommend eating prunes as these are more nutrient-dense. 🙂

    – Blaire @ AlgaeCal

  20. Bsher

    July 23, 2020 , 9:54 pm

    Hi, thanks for your useful article and for your answers. Any advise please when to take these 4-5 purnes?

    Like it’s better to take them at the same time? In the morning, before meal..?

    Would be grateful if you have any advice. Thank you very much again,

  21. Megan AlgaeCal

    July 24, 2020 , 11:08 am

    Hi Bsher!

    You can eat the prunes at any time that best fits into your schedule. You may want to start with 2-3 prunes a day before progressing to 4-5. Sometimes adding a lot of fiber at once can affect bowel habits. Be sure to drink plenty of fluids as well whenever you’re increasing fiber intake 🙂

    -Megan @ AlgaeCal

  22. Bsher

    July 25, 2020 , 2:52 am

    Thank you for your response and for the advice,

  23. Laura Theis

    December 5, 2020 , 6:55 pm

    Great info on prunes! Gonna eat them for sure now that I read nature’s bone building fruit thank you much ?

  24. Blaire AlgaeCal

    December 7, 2020 , 3:31 pm

    So glad to hear you’re going to eat more prunes now, Laura! ?

    – Blaire @ AlgaeCal

  25. Beth

    March 18, 2021 , 8:32 am

    Interesting and informing article. It just so happens that I recently bought some Newman’s Own organic prunes and am definitely going to add them to my morning repertoire. I have osteoporosis but do not want to go the drug route so I have been making my own raw milk kefir, raw yogurt, and raw cultured butter, as well as drinking 3-4 glasses of raw milk daily. Hopefully, all these will help show an improvement in my next bone density test. Thank you for a great article.

  26. Blaire AlgaeCal

    March 19, 2021 , 9:28 am

    We’re so glad you found this article helpful, Beth! Please do keep us updated on how your next DEXA scan goes ❤️

    – Blaire @ AlgaeCal

  27. BARBARA ANN RAY

    October 4, 2021 , 1:02 pm

    Do you need to stop taking a multivitamin and vitamin D3 when you start taking Algaecal.

  28. Kirby Johnson

    October 7, 2021 , 3:23 pm

    Hi Barbara,

    Great question! The short answer is: it depends. If your multivitamin includes a high concentration of calcium, we usually suggest looking for an alternative supplement (which ideally wouldn’t exceed 150 mg of calcium). And vitamin D3 requirements tend to vary between individuals, but you may benefit from additional vitamin D3 depending on your current vitamin D3 blood levels. You can learn more about testing and additional supplementation recommendations HERE. AlgaeCal Plus includes a maintenance dose of vitamin D3 levels, but it’s important to know your vitamin D3 blood levels in order to get in the optimal range for bone building. If you have any further questions, please don’t hesitate to reach out!

    – Kirby @ AlgaeCal

  29. Linda

    January 15, 2022 , 3:02 pm

    I buy non-sorbate prunes at Trader Joe’s.

  30. Kirby Johnson

    January 18, 2022 , 8:17 am

    Hi Linda,

    What a great way to naturally to support your bone health! Thanks so much for sharing!

    – Kirby @ AlgaeCal

  31. Penny

    February 3, 2022 , 11:01 am

    Great article, thanks. Question- I understand we can only absorb so much calcium at one time. If our, for example breakfast is particularly high in calcium should we take less AlgaeCal than we might otherwise?

  32. Kirby Johnson

    February 4, 2022 , 2:14 pm

    Penny,

    Fabulous question! Thank you so much for reaching out. The daily dosage (4 capsules) of calcium included in AlgaeCal Plus is 720mg and we always encourage our community members to eat a diet naturally rich in calcium to achieve a daily intake of ~1,200 mg. We’re happy to provide a resource for inspiration HERE. If you have any other questions or would like to discuss your specific circumstances further, please feel free to call us at 1-800-820-0184 (USA & Canada toll-free). Hope this helps!

    – Kirby @ AlgaeCal

  33. Phyllis Landis

    February 13, 2022 , 7:17 am

    Do organic prunes have potassium sorbate.

  34. Chelsea Dugas

    February 14, 2022 , 12:18 pm

    Hi Phyllis!

    Organic prunes are not supposed to contain potassium sorbate as it is a chemical additive, however, it is always best to read the labels on packaging first to be sure. Hope this helps! 🙂
    – Chelsea @ AlgaeCal

  35. Denice

    September 17, 2022 , 7:25 am

    This is great news & information!
    Good to know that only 5-6 prunes a day are effective as they contain a lot of natural sugars too. I will try to find organic prunes to incorporate into my nutrition program.
    Thank you for this post😊

  36. Chelsea Dugas

    September 19, 2022 , 12:53 pm

    Hi, Denice!

    You’re so welcome! 🙂

    – Chelsea @ AlgaeCal

  37. Judy S

    September 17, 2022 , 7:51 am

    I have heard of these benefits, but what about the sugar content of this dried fruit? I try not to eat too much dried fruit for that reason.

  38. Chelsea Dugas

    September 19, 2022 , 1:06 pm

    Great question, Judy –

    Dried prunes are considered to have high sugar content, however, they also have a high level of fibre and a low glycemic index, therefore they don’t cause a rapid hike in blood sugar. Their high sugar content also allows them to be dried efficiently without fermenting. Dried prunes provide a wide array of benefits (not to mention for our bones!), so ultimately, it’s up to you to decide if the benefits outweigh the sugar content. Hope this was helpful! 🙂

    – Chelsea @ AlgaeCal

  39. Faye Ellis

    September 17, 2022 , 8:29 am

    Read the article,, I hav IBS,, I’m able tooo consume Prunes every day.. great Information tho.
    Thank You!!

  40. Diana Carol Clarke

    September 17, 2022 , 8:50 am

    I just started eating more prunes their potassium content. Now I have more reasons to eat them.

  41. Chelsea Dugas

    September 19, 2022 , 1:24 pm

    The more reasons, the better, Diana! 🙂

    – Chelsea @ AlgaeCal

  42. Michelle

    September 17, 2022 , 8:53 am

    Love this – thank you!

  43. Evi Wingate

    September 17, 2022 , 10:59 am

    Hi there!……Just a thought…what about a cookbook that gives us ideas
    what to cook,that is good for our bones??! etc. Just a thought!
    Thank you !Eva

  44. Chelsea Dugas

    September 19, 2022 , 1:40 pm

    Hey, Eva!

    We actually DO have a cookbook called ‘Recipes for Stronger Bones’ and I’ve just sent a PDF version to your email. Enjoy! 🙂

    – Chelsea @ AlgaeCal

  45. Helen Rubardt

    September 17, 2022 , 11:48 am

    I love prunes and have been forgetting about them. Thanks!

  46. Chelsea Dugas

    September 19, 2022 , 1:42 pm

    Happy to be a friendly reminder, Helen! 🙂

    – Chelsea @ AlgaeCal

  47. Roslyn OByrne

    September 18, 2022 , 7:29 am

    Great information. But how many calories in 20 prunes!!

  48. Chelsea Dugas

    September 19, 2022 , 1:53 pm

    Hi, Roslyn!

    If you calculate that one serving of dried prunes is considered on average to be about 28 grams (approx. 3-4 prunes), this translates to around 67 calories. So, 20 dried prunes would be in the area of 350-450 calories (depending on the size of the prunes). Hope this helps give an approximate idea! 🙂

    – Chelsea @ AlgaeCal

  49. dulcy huard

    September 18, 2022 , 2:53 pm

    what about serious diabetics,no way could I tolerate the amount of suger in 5 dried prunes..is there an alternative food that does this[lo carb and lo suger]instead of prunes?

  50. Chelsea Dugas

    September 20, 2022 , 11:56 am

    Thanks for sharing your concern, Dulcy! Studies show that prunes are a healthful choice for people with diabetes due to their high fibre content and low glycemic index, meaning they do not cause a large rise in blood glucose and insulin. A definite plus if you’re dealing with blood sugar management! Hope this was helpful! 🙂

    – Chelsea @ AlgaeCal

  51. Trudy Byrns

    November 23, 2022 , 9:58 am

    What prune is the best for severe osteoporosis?
    I’m in trouble—both hips fractured—both shoulders and back surgery. I’ve tried many over the counter and vitamins. I just found this article. I want to make sure I eat the right prune. Dr. wants to put me on Prolia. Side affects are horrible with this drug. Please help. Thanks so much.

  52. Chelsea Dugas

    November 24, 2022 , 1:40 pm

    Trudy, I’m so sorry to hear of your struggles with bone loss and fractures. I hope you are feeling better and if you are still recouping, perhaps our Bone Fracture Healing Guide could provide additional support. As for prunes, your best option would be to go organic, this way you can ensure they are no harmful pesticides and preservatives. Luckily, there are many brands available online and in stores! I hope this helps to answer your question, and if you have any more, please feel free to contact our Bone Health Consultants 7 days a week at 1-800-820-0184 (USA & Canada, toll-free) or email [email protected] for more information and personalized support! 🙂

    – Chelsea @ AlgaeCal

This article features advice from our industry experts to give you the best possible info through cutting-edge research.

Prof. Didier Hans
PHD, MBA - Head of Research & Development Center of Bone Diseases, Lausanne University Hospital CHUV, Switzerland,
Lara Pizzorno
MDiv, MA, LMT - Best-selling author of Healthy Bones Healthy You! and Your Bones; Editor of Longevity Medicine Review, and Senior Medical Editor for Integrative Medicine Advisors.,
Dr. Liz Lipski
PhD, CNS, FACN, IFMP, BCHN, LDN - Professor and Director of Academic Development, Nutrition programs in Clinical Nutrition at Maryland University of Integrative Health.,
Dr. Loren Fishman
MD, B.Phil.,(oxon.) - Medical Director of Manhattan Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and Founder of the Yoga Injury Prevention Website.,
Dr. Carole McArthur
MD, PhD - Professor of Immunology, Univ. of Missouri-Kansas City; Director of Residency Research in Pathology, Truman Medical Center.,